Ontology is based on the nature of reality. It is classified on the basis of objectivism and subjectivism. The first aspect of ontology, objectivism portrays the position that social objects persist in reality external to social actors.
Secondly, subjectivism is concerned on the social phenomena which are emerged from the perceptions and consequences of those social actors concerned with their existence. For example, the Filmfare Award ceremony is the high cultural experience which is organized by the Government of India.
The government officials, ministers, celebrity of national as well as international level are invited in this programme. The researcher adopts subjectivism philosophy to determine their temperament and attitude. Epistemology is understood about the acceptable knowledge of a particular area of study. It can be divided into two aspects; resources researcher and feeling researcher. The philosophical approach of natural scientist is observed in positivism as the work of natural scientist is based on observable social entity.
Research strategy is approached on the basis of data collection and hypothesis development. These hypotheses will be tested and confirmed which can be used for further research. Another feature of this philosophy is that the positivist researcher follows highly structured methodology in order to facilitate the hypothesis.
Furthermore, positivism works on quantifiable observations and accordingly statistical analysis is obtained. For example, the resources researcher cannot manipulate during data collection procedure as they are independent to the subject of the research. For example, a research was conducted on the basis of flexi working on the female workforce throughout India. In positivism, these hypotheses are tested and result is confirmed by the researcher to develop a theory. Realism is another philosophical branch of epistemology which relates to scientific enquiry.
The core feature of realism is pertained to disclose the truth of reality and the existence of the objects are prevalent independently in the human mind.
Realism is classified as direct realism and critical realism. Direct realism explains what is experienced by our senses and that are attained by the researcher. On the other hand, the critical realism expresses that what is experienced by our sensations those are images of the real world, not the reality. The difference between the two is that the first is related to the capacity of research what is studied and the critical realist recognizes the importance of multi-level study in the context of the individual, the group and the organization.
There is a difference between direct realism and critical realism. Critical realism claims that there are two stages to experience this world.
Firstly, sensation is conveyed to experience the object or people or event and the nest stage is our mental process starts working after the sensations. Interpretivism is a branch epistemology which is focused to the assessment the differences between humans as social actors. The issue of difference is emphasized on the difference between conducting research among people rather than objects such as medicines and computer. The concept of Positivism is directly associated with the idea of objectivism.
In this kind of philosophical approach, scientists give their viewpoint to evaluate social world with the help of objectivity in place of subjectivity Cooper and Schindler According to this paradigm, researchers are interested to collect general information and data from a large social sample instead of focusing details of research. The positivism philosophical approach is mainly related with the observations and experiments to collect numeric data Easter-by-Smith et al Interpretivism can be referred as the Social Constructionism in the field of management research.
According to this philosophical approach research give importance to their beliefs and value to give adequate justification for a research problem Easterby- Smith et al. With the help of this philosophical, researchers focus to highlight the real facts and figures according to the research problem. This kind of philosophical approach understand specific business situation. In this approach, researchers use small sample and evaluate them in detail to understand the views of large people Kasi This research philosophy mainly concentrates in the reality and beliefs that are already exist in the environment.
In this philosophical approach, two main approaches are direct and critical realism McMurray, Pace and Scott Direct reality means, what an individual feels, see, hear, etc. Hence, based on their different perspectives, their strategies and methods will also differ. Philosophical approach enables the researcher to decide which approach should be adopted and why. Hence before selecting the appropriate research philosophy it is important to know about various types of philosophies in research Saunders et al.
These assumptions will determine research strategy and the methods of that strategy. This may include quality maintenance like machines, computers, raw materials and such others. For example, interpreting the psychological strategies undertaken by suppliers and demands of consumers. Naturalistic use the methods like, interview ,observation and analysis of existing texts. A qualitative approach is applied interacting with individuals in order to collaboratively construct a meaningful reality Rowlands, It believes that objects have an independent existence from human mind.
This element is more related to positivism. However, the view contrasts between direct realis t and critical realist. Precisely critical realists believe in virtual reality. While in case of critical realism, what the research has perceived observing the manufacturing process is only a part of the greater quality.
It varies from products to products and over time too. Similarly direct realist emphasises on changing the social world within which participants live. Hence, use action research and participant observation. This social phenomenon is constantly getting revised through continuous social interaction. Subjectivists believe that customers as social actors interpret a situation based on their perception of the world and through their interaction with the environment.
Qualitative methodology, similar to interpretivism is applicable. For example, the process of supply chain management social entity remains unchanged reality despite the change or replacement of all its actors including manufacturers, producers, logistics providers, suppliers and consumers social actors. Similarly an organisation and its internal functioning social entity remain unchanged reality despite the change in its workforce social actors.
Precisely a pragmatist avoid going into argument on concepts of truth and reality.
Research philosophy is a vast topic and here we will not be discussing this topic in great details. In business and economics dissertations at Bachelor’s level, you are not expected to discuss research philosophy in a great level of depth, and about one page in methodology chapter devoted to.
PDF | On Jan 1, , M. Saunders and others published Understanding research philosophies and approaches.
Philosophy of Research You probably think of research as something very abstract and complicated. It can be, but you'll see (I hope) that if you understand the different parts or phases of a research project and how these fit together, it's not nearly as complicated as it may seem at first glance. Research philosophy is an important part of research methodology. Research philosophy is classified as ontology, epistemology and axiology.
Research philosophy, refers to the development of knowledge adopted by the researchers in their research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, ). In other words, it is the theory that used to direct the researcher for conducting the procedure of research design, research strategy, questionnaire design. 3 Research Philosophy and Research Design Introduction In the introductory chapter, developing self-awareness was a key pro-cess outlined and it was stated that it is possible you have assumed that the way you view the world is the same as the way that everybody else.