In the third meditation, Descartes states two arguments attempting to prove God's existence, the Trademark argument and the traditional Cosmological argument. Although his arguments are strong and relatively truthful, they do no prove the existence of God. At the start of the meditation, Descartes begins by rejecting all his beliefs, so that he would not be deceived by any misconceptions from reaching the truth.
Descartes acknowledges himself as, "a thing that thinks: Descartes proposes a general rule, "that whatever one perceives very clearly and very distinctly is true" Descartes discovers, "that he can doubt what he clearly and distinctly perceives is true led to the realization that his first immediate priority should be to remove the doubt" because, "no organized body of knowledge is possible unless the doubt is removed" The best probable way to remove the doubt is prove that God exists, that he is not a deceiver and "will always guarantee that any clear and distinct ideas that enter our minds will be true.
In constructing his argument for God's existence, Descartes analyzes several aspects of the nature of human thought. He begins by outlining the various types of thoughts we have, which include ideas, thoughts, volitions and judgments.
Ideas, or images of ideas can only exist within the mind and are certain of existence. Volitions, or choices are firmly within the mind and are also certain.
Emotions, such as love, fear, hate, all exist in the mind and are certain as well. Judgments involve reference to effects outside the mind and are subject to doubt. Therefore, judgments are not certain and distinct. Descartes believes that images, volitions, and emotions are never false but it is our judgments that are misleading. Descartes states that among ideas, "some appear to be innate, some to be adventitious and others to have been invented by him " He is mainly interested in ideas, because ideas exist within the mind and are certain.
Descartes is able to examine ideas and gain knowledge form them. Innate ideas mean they are present at birth, in other words we are implanted with certain ideas at our creation. Consider as an example the valid rule, modus ponens. We know that we are programmed with this rule because young children, who have never studied logic and have never entertained the rule, when given an argument in which the variables above are replaced by actual sentences, are able to intuit the validity of the argument.
Adventitious ideas are created by outside objects but Descartes, "points out that, even if his adventitious ideas are produced by external objects, he has no reason for believing that his ideas resemble the objects which produced them. He demonstrates this problem with the two ideas of the sun. Our senses display that the sun is a small object. Astronomy projects that the sun is a large object. It is an example of A Priori vs. A Posteriori or Reason vs.
Descartes concludes that the source of our ideas is in the mind using our reason, not our senses. Almost everything that we believe to be true is through perception. Anselm The Christian philosopher Anselm's argument for the existence of God, often called the classical ontological argument, is that given that God is defined as a being that by definition is the greatest thing imaginable "which nothing greater can be conceived" therefore God must exist since to conceive of a being greater than God is impossible; if someone conceived of something greater than that being would be God Anselm If it is impossible that God cannot be "conceived not to exist" and if a mind could conceive something to exist greater than the Creator, that mind would "rise above the Creator," which Anselm regards as "absurd" and therefore only a "fool" says that God does not exist Anselm However, this argument seems to be tautological by defining God as a being greater than anything that can be conceived and therefore purporting the existence of God…… [Read More].
The debate over God's existence has gone on for centuries and is alive and well in our time. Philosophers, theologians, scientists, and ordinary people have weighed in on the argument. Theologians such as Aquinas and Anselm argued for the existence of God in the Middle Ages, but even in that time, others disputed their contentions.
Even some who believe in God argue that proving God's existence through logic, science, or reasoning is impossible because even hard evidence has nothing more than faith behind it. Are the people who worship God wasting their time then? Does God impact their lives?
That question can be difficult…… [Read More]. God the Necessary Existence of. If it cannot be effectively proven that God does not exist, then God apparently does exist. In fact, the lack of proof for atheism can be used as direct proof in the existence of God. The apparent manifest multiplicity of the universe is further proof of the necessity of God. The crux of the necessary existence of God theory is that God is most certainly not a being that could have conceivably not existed.
The fact that the thought of God exists illuminates the existence of God, and thus, the necessity of God. Central to the theory of the necessity of God is…… [Read More]. God's Existence Arguments for God's. This argument begins with the tenet that for the Universe to exist something outside the universe must have created it.
Also refereed to as the First Cause or the Uncaused Cause theory, here God exists as the prime mover that brought the universe into existence. The universe is a series of events, which began with God who must exist apart from the universe, outside of time and space as well.
Martin the detractors of this theory say that if everything has a creator than God must also have a creator and that perhaps an infinite series of creators and universes exist as well. Also if God is an uncaused cause than why could not the universe be one as well. This is perhaps one of the most interesting arguments for the existence of God. Basically it states that since man perceives a moral law,…… [Read More].
God Exist The Question of. Unlike natural theology and revealed theology, however, the philosophy of religion is not concerned only with the existence or non-existence of God, but with a wide range of other issues that religion raises and is connected to, such as life after death, ethics, and moral behavior.
The application of rationality to these other areas of religion raises other philosophical questions as well. One type of theory used by religious philosophers or natural theologists are cosmological arguments.
These attempt to prove the existence of God by logically proving that the universe must have had a cause or "prime mover," and this cause, then, is God or gods. Aristotle's three point sum up the groundwork for most cosmological arguments: If these arguments are taken as true,…… [Read More].
God Exist Humanities Fascination With. Answer to an Atheist e are mortals and cannot possible know the will of God. God does perform miracles in our lives, if we only stop to pay heed to them. If one takes a bunch of parts and random parts and pieces, gives them to a chimpanzee, and asks them to assemble a car from them, an Atheist would have one believe that eventually they would do it through random chance.
There is another similar argument that if you placed monkeys at typewriters they would eventually come up with a Shakespeare play. Just as the Atheist argument claims that there is no proof that God exists because no on has ever seen him, there is also no proof that the monkeys will ever make a car or type Shakespeare.
It has never been done and no one has ever proven that it will actually happen. At the…… [Read More]. Existence Proceeds Essence What Is. Sartre rejected such Platonic idealism, and as an atheist who revered human thought, he also rejected the idea that human beings are like hammers.
Humans are unique in their capacity, Sartre believed, for premeditated thought. But that thought must be developed, it is not something we are 'given' at birth -- we have the responsibility to craft that sense of autonomy with our own free will. Human beings exist, that much is clear, but it is only after they exist that some 'essence' that can be called 'human' may develop Cline Sartre believed that human beings should develop this capacity for 'essence' or higher thought, but without existence there is no essence.
Film God on Trial. Movie Analysis and Review The Holocaust of orld ar II spawned many tragedies, one of which was the crisis of faith it precipitated amongst European Jews. The film God on Trial depicts the inhabitants of a concentration camp literally putting God on trial for his crimes against humanity as they wait to be "sorted out" into groups of who will live and who will die at Auschwitz.
The film begins set in the present, where various tourists to the concentration camp are shown gawking at the premises. They can hardly believe the horror was once real and then slowly, there is a shift as the camera pans away to reveal a change of time and the viewer is taken back to orld ar II.
The event is based upon an apocryphal incident in which the residents of Auschwitz were said to have staged such a mock court,…… [Read More]. Yet, in the lives of Mary Rowlandson, and Ben Franklin, they recognized the working of The Almighty in their every day circumstances. Maybe it was that they didn't look for God to prove himself to them, but they acknowledged that the Almighty God is always at work. Maybe it was their colonial upbringing which emphasized that God is active in the lives of his children which taught them to see the Hand of God in everyday situations.
What could be said with a measure of certainty is that these two did not have a pre-determined list of what they expected god to do for them. In the two readings, Ben Franklin recognized God's hands in protection and providential care throughout his lifetime which grew from…… [Read More]. Each of these writings argues for their God given rights, claiming every person is equal. Each must start new: One as a Christian, the others as a government.
It is the bravery and the challenge in these writings that fascinate readers and help them understand America's growth process into the country it now proudly is.
Wheatley writes a poem discussing the introduction to both America and the Christian faith. The author feels as though she was brought to America out of kindness, and is thankful for the introduction to Christianity. She continues on to discuss the social factors, asking why her race is good enough for God, but not for the other Americans.
When asking,…… [Read More]. Existence the Nature of Existence. The Implicate Order and Explicate Order can be compared to a piece of holographic film and the image it produces. The film corresponds to the enfolded, or hidden, Implicate Order. The image, or hologram, what is humanly perceived is the Explicate Order.
Thus, the tangible "reality" of our everyday lives is a kind of holographic image being projected from the "film" or source -- the Implicate Order Dunlap, The flow of time is part of the dynamic process of enfolding and unfolding. The event we call death is another example of what he is saying. Death is not the end -- it is simply moving out of the Explicate and into the Implicate.
Bohm suggests that consciousness flows…… [Read More]. Descartes' Believe in God Descartes Believe in. The assessment is heavily disputed by archaic religious doctrines. The traditional conflict between science and religion is entirely based on the dominion and not what is right or wrong.
Rene Descartes' belief in God is not based on atheistic principles, but on blasphemy as seen from the way he investigates God's functions.
A scientific argument proving Descartes' arguments and a reflection on his presumptions are provided. Does Descartes believe in God?
As a philosopher and mathematician, Descartes dedicated his work entirely on writing and researching. His arguments combined humanism, science, and religion to arrive on the much-aggrandized assumptions of…… [Read More]. Moral and Not Belief in God Humanity. Humanity encompasses all aspects about exemplification of life and the utmost being. The origin of man is detrimental to the subsequent behaviours and codes of living among these human beings. In most cases, many researchers have shown that human existence is based on the origin and existence of God.
God is regarded as a supreme being who gives and takes life. Nonetheless, human behaviour and character is dictated by what takes place in the multilingual conglomerates and thoughts within the human mind.
In fact, humanity is obviously inexistent without the existence and intervention of God. Nonetheless, I support the opinion that believing in God changes human characters and behaviours.
The impairment of morals and sensible approaches of handling life come with assurance of living in the presence of God. With God being an assurance to a moral sustenance of human life, one can be…… [Read More].
Aristotle's Position on the Existence. The material cause refers to that substance out of which a thing is constructed. The formal cause is the idea of the thing in the mind of the creator who sets about creating that particular thing.
The efficient cause is the Agent - or the being that creates the thing. The final cause is the purpose for which the thing has been created. Mere potentiality does not exist on its own, but enters into the creation of all things - except for the Supreme Cause. Mere potentiality thus stands at one pole of reality, while the Supreme Cause - or God - is at the other.
Materia prima contains the most attenuated reality, as it is pure indeterminateness. God, on the other hand, contains the highest, most complete reality, as God is on the highest level of determinateness. One of the central tasks of…… [Read More].
Is something pious because it is loved by the gods -- or do the gods love all that is pious? This is the central question asked in Plato's dialogue the Euthyphro Ross The dialogue revolves around a young man who has elected to bring charges against his father for killing a slave.
To complicate matters still further, the slave was accused of murder himself before he was killed. The question is never answered in the dialogue, but this raises the question: Is there then no morality? Socrates seems to suggest that morality is intrinsic to actions themselves, given his largely deflationary view of traditional myths of the Greek gods. This is one of the reasons that he was charged with impiety under Athenian law.
Reason God and Religion With Reference to. These philosophers gave us some interesting views on the subject of God, which may prove helpful in understanding the nature of good in a world where evil often dominates. He was of the view that with reason comes knowledge, which further helps the statesmen in acting virtuously. Virtue is then the most important product of reason, which is needed to save a society.
Here it is important to keep in mind that Socrates wasn't concerned with reason for its own sake but because of the notion that it could give birth to knowledge and virtue. It is also critical to know that for Socrates, reason was not connected with an ability to separate right from wrong.
Can God Be Personal. God Personal Defining "Personal" etween the belief that God is a person and the belief that God is personal which one is essential to Christian faith? My stand is that the belief that God is a person is a hindrance to Christian faith. Interestingly, some recent religious philosophy writers have however made the assumption that believing in God is believing in a person. Richard Swinburne is one such influential advocate of this concept.
It is clear from his works that Richard Swinburne understands that God is like "a bodiless person, a spirit who can do anything, is all knowing, free, without fault, eternal and the creator of the universe. That God is a person or personal is one of the fundamental claims believers have continuously made about God.
God is represented like a person in Vishnu, Hinduism, rahma and Shiva. Philosophy -- Kant and Ethics Existence. Admittedly, we do not know how it that anything such as a physical universe exists, let alone exactly how it came about that life came into existence.
It is often suggested that there must be a God since it is impossible for anything to come into existence spontaneously through "self-creation" and equally impossible that anything existed forever in the past. Regardless of how elementary the very first particle of matter or energy and regardless how long ago it first emerged, it must have come from somewhere and through some process.
In the minds of many people, the only logical explanation for the existence of the universe and especially of life is that it must have been created by a God. However, there are serious logical problems with that belief. First, it necessarily relies on completely circular reasoning: Providing this argument in a logical way to parishioners in a homily or during an RCIA would be challenging but possible. Thomas has based his argument on five major elements that form the premises of the argument conclusion.
The audience needs to be alerted on each of the premises leading to the decision made. There is motion in the world. This motion exists in terms of potential motion, which made to be a real motion by action. Action leads to the motion. There is no stagnation in the universe, which is a sign of things moving.
God must be the mover, as no one understands it. Nothing can exist before the creator. God must be an initial…… [Read More]. High God Christians, Muslims and Jews world over practice their belief that God is the Supreme Being, absolutely perfect, Who is responsible for creating all the things we have in today's world and for continuing to keep them in existence.
God has made everything that we have in the universe today; the list is infinite but it includes mankind, animals, plants, planets, etc. God keeps everything alive, if He were to stop giving life to all that exists today, everything would vanish faster than we could blink our eyes. Think about it, without God there could be nothing in this Universe. In him we live and move and have our being" Acts Not a single nation doubts the existence of God because they have an…… [Read More].
Problem of Evil God Evil. Bibliography dams, Marilyn McCord. Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Cornell University Press, Roman Philosophy and the Good Life. Between Jerusalem and thens: Ethical Perspectives on Culture, Religion, and Psychotherapy. Imagination in the Leap.
God, Power, and Evil: Reader, edited by Mark…… [Read More]. Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity. Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god. Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions.
Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects.
Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…… [Read More].
The a And B Theory of Existence. B-Theory, one need not fear death? There is a common assumption that all atheists fear death, given that the atheist lacks the comfort of a world which exists after this one. First of all, Le Poidevin points out that not all theists believe in a concrete conception of the afterlife Secondly, the question arises as to why we are so fearful of the "attenuation of the effects of our life after we die" and why we "fear being forgotten" Le Poidevin implies that a theist conception of the universe is in part why we regard such an eventuality as an awful thing.
Over the course of his essay, Le Poidevin makes a contrast between what he calls the A-theory and B-theory of time. The A-theorist conceives of time as being…… [Read More]. Human Soul and the Existence of Life. Human Soul and the Existence of Life After Death The presence of the human soul and the existence of life after death are questions that have plagued people for centuries, perhaps since the beginning of human life. Specifically, fear and concern over death of the physical and metaphysical permeate human life and culture.
While there is no concrete proof of the existence of life after death, most people do believe in it as we are spiritual beings connected to something greater than the physical body and life. By altering our perception of death -- learning not to fear it and understanding it as a beginning, not an end -- we can alter our lives.
Almost all religions of the world have concerned themselves with the questions of life after death. While religious leaders, prophets of God, emphasized the concept of life after death, followers usually came to odds with this…… [Read More].
How to Know God by Using the Bible. It is a language that we must look for if we are desirous to know God. This is the thesis of Lewis's work -- and thus the book takes a foray into the Scriptures so that the reader might better understand the God Whom he seeks. Lewis connects this idea with that of Calvin, who also began his teaching from the basis of "knowing" God rather than…… [Read More].
Philosophy and Theology Philosophy is the study of wisdom while theology is the study of God. Some of the earliest and best known classical philosophers are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle.
They essentially laid the foundation for Western philosophy by examining such concepts as truth, goodness, virtue, and the meaning of life. Socrates made the claim that God and Truth are basically one and the same: Aquinas basically codified the science of theology in his Summa Theologica -- the Sum of Theology.
This was the scholastic view of theology or of how the Medieval world thought of God: Armand Nicholi Freud and God. Armand Nicholi's The Question of God: It places in counterpoint the thought and writings of two men who never met, spoke, or engaged in any important way with each other's writings -- in fact they had little in common apart from both living in Great Britain at the same time for a period of about fourteen months.
These men are the Oxford don, C. Lewis, an authority on Renaissance literature and a novelist and Christian polemicist, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, still famous as a doctor and theoretician who posited the existence of such concepts as the Oedipus complex, the unconscious, and polymorphous perversity. Freud never read a word that C. Lewis wrote, and while it is extremely unlikely that Lewis could have escaped exposure to the widely disseminated ideas of…… [Read More].
Aquinas Thomas Aquinas was summarily concerned with the compatibility of faith and reason. Aquinas offers a rather ironic glimpse at the nature of reason, which is both capable of intellectual comprehension of God but simultaneously insufficient for understanding God.
Thus, Aquinas argues that God can be ascertained and even logically proven via the use of reason, but that the experience of God is a transcendent, spiritual, and emotional one that requires faith. Faith also fulfills the goals of reason, which is truer and greater understanding of God. One of the ways Aquinas reconciles faith and reason is…… [Read More]. God What Is the Image of God. God What is the image of God? This is an important theological question.
Depending upon what a person believes the image of God to be, and man's relation to that image, the whole rest of that person's theological belief system will be affected and slanted by it. The Bible gives some good guidelines as to what the image of God is, and what man's relation to that image is.
Noted theologian Henry Theissen discusses it in his lecture series, as well. This paper discusses the idea of the image of God and man's relation to that image using contemporary theological research. The Bible tells us that man was created in the image of God.
This seems pretty straightforward. On first reading, one might reasonably assume that man was created to look like God. This would mean that God looks like us. This is a very comforting thought for most people,…… [Read More]. Existence and Nature of Matter. Since this simplifies and organizes our experience of the world, it is wiser to accept the value of truth of this belief.
If Russell questioned the existence of matter, Aristotle was concerned with its nature. According to him, all the things which come into existence must come from a substratum which is the very nature of matter.
Nevertheless, should this underlying matter of the universe come from another, already-existing underlying matter, this judgement results self-contradictory. On the other hand, nothing can be generated ex-nihilo, therefore, it can only be concluded that in order to exist, matter needs to be possible. However, possibility can not exist in itself, but must be conceived as residing in something else. And here one could bring Spinoza's conceptions into discussion.
In his opinion things can exist or in themselves or in something else. Since God is the only one who can exist through himself and…… [Read More]. God and the Word Was God So. God, and the ord was God. So reads the first verse of the book of John, just two in a handful of bible verses I was made to memorize and recite before I was able to read.
These verses and the ones preceding and following them were read to me nightly -- and often in the mornings as well -- by my mother, grandmother and grandfather in our home in the small Southern Baptist community of Perry, Georgia. In addition to the bible, I was read bible stories in books with colorful illustrations meant to engage children.
The illustrations helped me to associate meaning with the words on the page, while the words themselves struck me as just another way of painting a picture. God Exist The Debate as. DNA instructs the cell. DNA is a three-billion-lettered program telling the cell to act in a certain way" [what authorized and created that system, if not God? Meanwhile Oxford professor Anthony Flew argues against those who say that because of the big bang God is proven to exist.
Did God cause the big bang, or was it just "popped" into existence, Flew asks. And why only two possibilities? Only a physicist can explain that, Flew asserts. Okay then, Flew explains that if God is truly "omnipotent and omniscient" and wants people to "behave in a certain way, why couldn't he accomplish this?
If you were omnipotent wouldn't you expect results and expect people to do exactly…… [Read More]. Existence for This Exercise I. She was struggling with a bag of dog food and I helped her get it in the car.
She was surprised by my wanting to help her, but very appreciative. As I was bringing my cart back to the location for carts, I grabbed another that was taking up a parking space and I brought it with me to the cart location. I thought someone would want to park there and wouldn't be able to because of the cart.
While I walked on the sidewalk during the middle of the day I also saw a homeless man with a cup for money. I was going into Starbucks and I didn't have any change or cash on me and so I asked him if I could buy him something to eat or drink. He said that he would love a hot coffee and something sweet to eat.
I bought him a…… [Read More]. Existence of Tastes Among Groups of People. Such studies allow us to establish mean tastes and preferences, whether we want to analyze a correlation in order to understand cognitive behavior better, or generate revenue models that will cater to the buying power of the greatest number of people.
In this assignment, I will develop two studies that may be used to determine in one case the correlation between certain religious beliefs and mental instability and in another whether successful students prefer different beverages than unsuccessful ones. Are certain types of religious beliefs associated with mental instability? Freud first observed that many of his patients that suffered from various neuroses also maintained somewhat compulsive religious beliefs.
However, a determination could be made between expressing obsessive behavior and applying it to religious matters and maintenance certain specific religious beliefs…… [Read More]. God Has Given His Prophet. The scene is reminiscent of Egyptian burial chambers; the walls were covered with brilliantly painted images of deities in animal form, including Anubis, the jackal-headed god who weighed the soul of the dead.
This second phase of the prophet's vision of Jerusalem illustrates a number of important points with respect to the state of religion in the capital city. The nation's leadership was actively engaged in the pursuit of evil. It is already clear from the first part of the prophet's vision that the worship of the temple had become sadly debased; a pagan altar had been set up in the temple's outer court.
So why, with a public altar outside was there a secret worship of the other false gods inside? Probably, there were two forms of the false religion? The open altar…… [Read More].
Thomas Aquinas's Cosmological Argument, and St. Anselm's Ontological Argument, one can only come to one conclusion. As superficial as this might seem for some believers, the conclusion is not that God exists. Sometimes it is better to be superficial, as this provides a person with the ability to see matters from a general perspective.
Considering the complexity of things can lead to serious dilemmas, taking into account that as long as someone wants to believe that God exists, the respective individual can go through great efforts with the purpose to come up with a theory that can convince many to accept it. This is exactly what happened in the cases of Paley, Aquinas, and Anselm.
These people devised ingenious theories that are hard to contradict by simply relating to the…… [Read More]. Religious Ethics God and the. In fact, there is a sense here in which the will to do good deeds restores God to the universe as the fountainhead of morality, with the famous "categorical imperative" substituting for specific divine commandments. However, those who are not already convinced that moral truths are possible -- who are not already "morally certain" -- tend to find this argument circular Palmer For the rest of us, it is a very different proposition to develop and defend a moral framework in the absence of religious certainty.
In this approach, human nature is split between conviction or faith on the one hand and anxiety on the other. Solaris God and Ineffability the.
The Existence of God In this essay I am going to explore and analyse arguments concerning the existence of God. I will be investigating all the different beliefs about God from Christians including: 'Moral and Divine Command', 'Ontological', 'Cosmological' and the argument from design.
Existence of God Essay Words | 7 Pages. utilization of the senses, and an empirical mindset, one can substantiate the existence of God. Aquinas holds the conception that in the quest for God’s existence, philosophy and theology are interwoven together and both play complementary roles.
- The Existence of God In this essay I am going to explore and analyse arguments concerning the existence of God. I will be investigating all the different beliefs about God from Christians including: 'Moral and Divine Command', 'Ontological', 'Cosmological' and the argument from design. God's existence has been an ongoing debate probably for centuries. It's been taken into consideration by many scholar people. Looking at the philosopher's point of view, it is realized that their arguments is driven from two different disciplines which include the epistemology and the ontology [ 1 ].
An essay or paper on God's Existence. The quandary of the existence of God has troubled mankind for thousands of years. The existence of God was once never denied, as His presence, His existence was evident in miracles and the people"s faith. I will be arguing that the definitions are real and constructive therefore the geometrical method contributes to a logical argument for the existence of God. Proposition 11 is the first proposition where God is mentioned and this proposition contains three demonstrations for God's existence.