Around 16 percent are in the age group of years, followed by above 50 years 13 percent , and below 20 years 5 percent. It is observed that majority of respondents comprising 73 percent are either graduates or post graduates. The remaining 27 percent have below graduation educational background.
It is also observed that private employees comprise 38 percent of sample followed by housewives 25 percent , and government employees 18 percent.
The remaining are students, businessmen and professionals. It is found that 43 percent respondents are in the middle income group Rs. At the same time, 31 percent belong to low income group Below Rs. The remaining 26 percent belong to high income category above Rs. It is seen that around 63 percent respondents have members in their families. Around 26 percent have more than 4 three members. Another 11 percent have two or less members. This gives occupation wise, income wise, and lifecycle wise distribution of sample consumers of toilet soaps.
The behavior of urban respondents towards toilet soaps in terms of influencing factors, buying habits, and brand loyalty is analyzed. For this purpose, a structured questionnaire of five point scale reflecting the attitudes of the sample respondents is used in the investigation. Data collected from the respondents is tabulated, analysed, interpreted and presented in two sections viz.
Buying Habits, Section B: Buying habits are analysed in terms of five interrelated variables viz. Choice of Retail Store, c. Frequency of Purchase, e. Average Expenditure and consumption. Companies advertise their product as a bundle of some attributes.
And, customers see the product as a bundle of benefits. They try to assess the benefit of each attribute and assign a level of importance and build perception about the total product. Then, they take the purchase decision. In this context, respondents are asked to rank various product attributes in terms of their influence on buying decision. The rankings are presented in Table No. It is seen that unique ingredients of a particular soap has been ranked the first major influencing attribute in the purchase process.
Impact on skin and complexion and brand name are ranked second and third respectively followed by price and freshness. Consumers consider many factors in selecting a particular store to purchase the products.
These factors may include availability of a particular brand, availability of information, familiarity and knowledge about the store, proximity of the store, time pressure, store specific promotions, social status etc. By choosing a particular type of store, consumers may get either utilitarian value obtaining a required product with the least effort or hedonistic value the fun and pleasure associated with the buying process.
In this context, respondents are asked to name their preferred outlet. Another 32 percent bought from wholesale kirana shops. The remaining opted for nearby shops. It is observed that Santoor is the most popular brand with 31 percent users, followed by Cinthol with 11 percent users.
Approximately 10 percent each are using Mysore Sandal and Pears. Lux is used by 9 percent respondents, while Medimix is used by 7 percent. Dove and Vivel account for 6 percent respondents each. The remaining brands are used by a few respondents. Frequency of purchase can be defined as the number of times a consumer purchases during a particular period.
It depends on the volume of purchase, economic status, life style, promotion schemes etc. In this study, it is observed that majority of respondents comprising around 45 percent purchase once in a month. Another 33 percent purchase whenever they required the product. Around 15 percent purchased once in a fortnight.
The remaining 7 percent purchased weekly once. A question was asked with the respondents to know about the average expenditure on toilet soaps and number soaps used in a month. It is observed that 62 percent respondents spend below Rs. The remaining 38 percent respondents spend above Rs. Majority of the respondents have been using around six toilet soaps per month.
Brand loyalty is analysed in terms of seven interrelated variables viz. Non-availability of Preferred Brand, e. Usage Period of Present Brand, f. Reasons for Brand Switching, g.
Brand knowledge is based on brand awareness and brand image. Creating brand awareness is an important tool in promoting brands with little differentiation such as toilet soaps.
It can play a major role in purchasing decisions. The products with highest brand awareness will usually get more sales. In the urban market segment, it is interesting to note that, higher the level of education level, greater is the brand awareness. About 73 percent of respondent consumers are above graduation. Within this 73 percent, around 32 percent are from professional courses.
These 73 percent respondents are aware of more than 7 brands. Majority of them could recall the brand ambassador and punch line of the brands also. The remaining 27 percent of the respondent consumers are with below graduation level of education.
Out of which, around 8 percent of the respondent consumers are below the tenth class. These 27 percent of respondent consumers are aware of only brands. Majority of them, either they could not recall or are indifferent of brand ambassador and punch line. The strength, favorability and uniqueness of associations help build a superior brand image. A favorable brand image is useful in creating strong brand equity. In this regard, a question was asked with respondents to compare their present brand with other competing brands.
Majority of the respondents comprising 64 percent felt that their brand as the best one. Around 25 percent said it gives good value for money. The remaining 11 percent felt it as almost similar with other brands.
At the same time, most of the respondents perceived their preferred brand as the market leader in its category. Although non price factors have assumed importance of late, price still remains a dominant factor influencing sales of a product. Fluctuation of prices will have an impact on continuity of the same brand, i. In this context, it is proposed to analyse the impact of price changes on brand loyalty income wise.
It is seen that at 10 percent price increase, majority of the respondents across all income levels opted for continuing with the same level of consumption. From among the remaining respondents, many decided to reduce consumption. A few respondents wanted to shift to other brands. Similarly, at 20 percent price increase, 35 percent Low Income , 35 percent Middle Income , and 67 percent High Income respondents opted for continuing with the same level of consumption.
Around 34 percent respondents from low income category chose to reduce their consumption. The corresponding figures for middle income and high income groups are 23 percent and 13 percent respectively.
Another 13 percent Low Income , 30 percent Middle Income , 10 percent High Income respondents decided to shift to other brands, while the remaining preferred to search for other alternatives. At the same time, at 40 percent price increase, 10 percent Low Income , 23 percent Middle Income , and 54 percent High Income respondents chose to continue with the same level of consumption.
Another 1 6 percent Low Income , 7 percent Middle Income and 15 percent High Income wanted to reduce their consumption. Further, around 55 percent Low Income , 51 percent Middle Income , and 19 percent High Income respondents desired to change their brands. The remaining respondents wanted to search for other alternatives. Further, based on the same data, Chi-square test is conducted to identify differences, if any, among the respondents belonging to different income groups in terms of price sensitivity and brand loyalty at various levels of increase in the price of present soap brand.
Calculated values are presented in Table II. It is observed from the above table that at 10 percent price increase, the calculated value of chi-square is less than the table value. Hence, it can be concluded that there are no significant differences among the respondents belonging to different income groups at 10 percent price increase of the present toilet soap brand. But, when the price is increased to 20 percent or 40 percent above the current price, respondents belonging to different income groups exhibited altogether different behavior.
Store loyalty is regarded as the patronage of customers to a particular outlet.. Store loyalty is influenced by the availability of products and brands at the store and the process involved in customers acquiring them. Brand loyalty is also a major factor in shaping the customers opinions towards a particular store. When a preferred brand is not available in a particular store, consumers will have two options; purchasing the same brand in another shop i.
In the present study it is seen that 78 percent respondents preferred to purchase the same brand from another shop. The remaining 22 percent purchased other brands available in the same shop. Brand loyalty also results in using the same brand regularly over a period of time. It is seen that 51 percent respondents have been using the same brand for above 4 years followed by 21 percent for below 1 year. Around 17 percent have been using it for years, and the remaining 11 percent for years.
However, sometimes consumers change their regular brands and patronize new brands due to various reasons. For this purpose, respondents are asked to identify the most important reason that for brand switching from earlier brand to present one. It is observed that 54 percent respondents cited better quality of new brand as a major reason for brand switching. Another 13 percent wanted to check the new brand.
Consumer Behaviour is the discipline developing to study 'of the processes involved when either individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and desires' Solomon, In perspective of marketing, the term 'consumer' refers the purchase action and aggregation of possible patterns pre-purchase and post purchase behaviour.
Pre-purchase action includes the awareness and searching information to evaluate different products or services, which may potentially satisfy the need or want. Post purchase behaviour is an action essentially to evaluate the performance of purchased item viz. These behaviour have consequential implications on consumers repurchase behaviour, therefore they are agreeable to marketer, of course in different scale Foxall, Social science researcher have been desiring for far more cultivated and refined theoretical concepts and techniques for analysing consumer behaviour.
This provides for better understanding of behaviour, more accurate indicator of futuristic view and ensures effective discipline on consumer behaviour. Marsden, suggests to elucidate conceptually undergirded framework for consumer behaviour, understanding of fundamenatal paradigms in consumer research and their sequential evolution is important.
Paradigms can be safely studied as hypotheses researcher create to answer what to study and how to go about it Kuhn, As discussed here, a set of dimensions can be classified to portray and explain contrasts in the various views on consumer behaviour.
With advent and gradual evolution of discipline of consumer behavior, researcher drew from various disciplines such as psychology, sociology, psycho-sociology to social literature Solomon, The reason for involving different discipline by social science researcher is to approach consumer issues from different angles and dimensions.
Apart from many disciplinary approaches, fundamentally consumer behavior orientation can be safely bifurcated on the basis of their inherent emphasis on intrinsic forces, of which theories are taken from psychology and extrinsic forces have their underpinning in sociology discipline.
Besides this focus of analysis ' consumer attitude differs is fundamental premise, and therefore, different aspects of consumption behavior are described by various approaches. Consumer research has been looked as growing sub discipline of marketing with an ambition to establish its pivotal application in the area of marketing, thus, study of consumer behavior or consumer research has been regarded as discipline of applied social science.
In this context, the evaluation of insight or understanding generated of consumer and their behaviour is solely on its pragmatic application to improve the efficacy of marketing. With this understanding, marketing management essentially has bearing in few concepts of how consumers behave and their response to marketer's product, price, promotion and distribution and its likely impact on the organizational objective.
In developed and rich economies, the accomplishment of marketing is not driven as much by merely controlling marketing mix rather in addition is willingness of consumers to patronize, better then the competitor. Consumer orientation marketing is the result of abundant choices and discretionary power exercised by the consumer. Foxall, Consumer Behaviour , , choice decision taken by consumer do not have implication just for competing industries, rather, it is expanded beyond the conventional definition of traditional industry and markets.
First part primarily discusses the paradigms emerged in consumer research in the period of traditional positivism, and hence earlier developed buyer behavior models proposed by economists are exhibited and later will be pursued by conventional viewpoints. Comprehensively, the ambition of this portion is to frame attributes and key arguments of these viewpoints.
An analysis of perspective is following in part two, however conventional perspective with inherent diversity in many aspects is found to be similar in terms of their fundamentals; Philosophical and methodological while exploring consumer behavior, i. Traditionally, economists have influenced the buyer behavior modeling and economics viewed consumer behavior as solo act of purchasing and after purchase actions.
This theory dictates that purchase decision is result of balanced and attentive economic calculations. Thus, buyer seeks to spend resources on those goods that will deliver the maximum utility satisfaction according to his preferences and relative price. The events of this viewpoint can be found in A.
Marshall, Principles of Economics. The Marshal model overlooks the fundamental probe in, essentially, how product and brand preferences are formed. Westing, Pure economics cannot provide all logical explanations to alterations in sales numbers, various sub-viewpoints within the field are apt to offer explanations for psychological, preferential, and accumulated demand alterations.
As an example, the empirical analysis of economic variable for choice has been good in providing rationally explaining the changes in consumer behaviors. Lewis, Many research studies have Several studies have described the effect of price on brand preference, changes in product attributes and respective demand variation, price-demand elasticity and goods shortage on consumer choice behavior.
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